History of Florida
The area was once a home to various native American cultures, including the Tocobaga. Its modern history began with the founding of Fort Brooke in today's downtown in 1823, which in turn brought a small population of civilians to the area.
Growth came slowly and sporadically for the village of Tampa during its first half-century, as poor transportation links, conflicts with the Seminole tribe, and repeated outbreaks of yellow fever made development difficult. This changed in the 1880s, when the coming of the railroad and new industries brought sudden prosperity and attracted many new residents to the town. By the turn of the 19th century, Tampa had grown into one of the largest cities in Florida, a status it has kept ever since.
There is some dispute as to the origin and meaning of the name "Tampa". It is believed to mean "sticks of fire" in the language of the Calusa, a Native American tribe that once lived south of the area. Other historians claim the name refers to "the place to gather sticks". "Sticks of fire" may also relate to the high concentration of lightning strikes that Tampa Bay receives every year during the hot and wet summer months. Toponymist George R. Stewart writes that the name was the result of a miscommunication between the Spanish and the Indians, the Indian word being "itimpi", meaning simply "near it".
The name first appears in the "Memoir" of Hernando de Escalante Fontaneda (1575), who had spent 17 years as a Calusa captive. He calls it "Tanpa" and describes it as an important Calusa town. While "Tanpa" may be the basis for the modern name "Tampa", archaeologist Jerald Milanich places the Calusa village of Tanpa at the mouth of Charlotte Harbor near current day Pineland. Map maker Bernard Romans found certain difficulties in translating earlier Spanish-era maps of Florida for English use. Thus, the name was accidentally transferred north.
European exploration and early history
Archaeological evidence indicates that the shores of Tampa Bay have been inhabited for thousands of years. Artifacts suggest that early inhabitants of the region relied on the sea for most of their resources. Consequently, a vast majority of inhabited sites in the area have been found on or near the shoreline.
The dominant culture at the time of European contact were the Tocobaga, a loose confederation of chiefdoms and villages located along the central Gulf coast and in a ring around Tampa Bay, with the principal village located on the shores of Old Tampa Bay near today's Safety Harbor in Pinellas County. Each village contained a temple mound, a central plaza, and one or more middens, which were trash heaps from which most archeological information has been obtained.
Many of these mounds and middens survived for hundreds of years after their builders were gone, but most (including one at the mouth of the Hillsborough River at the site of today's downtown Tampa) were leveled as Tampa and the surrounding communities grew in the 20th Century
In April of 1528, the ill-fated Narváez Expedition landed near present-day Tampa with the intention of starting a colony. After being told by the natives of wealthier cultures to the north, they abandoned their camp after only a week to begin a long but futile search for non-existent riches. A dozen years later, a surviving member of the expedition named Juan Ortiz was rescued by Hernando de Soto's expedition.
de Soto conducted a peace treaty with the Tocobaga, and a short-lived Spanish outpost was established. However, this was abandoned when it became clear that there was no gold in the area, that the local Indians were not interested in converting to Catholicism, and that they were too skilled as warriors to easily conquer.
Though they successfully avoided being conquered by guns, the indigenous peoples had little defense against germs. Diseases introduced by European contact would decimate the native population in the ensuing decades , leading to a total collapse of long-standing cultures across peninsular Florida. Between this depopulation and the indifference of its colonial owners, the Tampa Bay area would be effectively uninhabited for the next 200+ years.
Great Britain acquired Florida in 1763 as part of the treaty which ended the French and Indian War (Seven Years War). The bay was rechristened "Hillsborough Bay" after Lord Hillsborough, the then-Secretary of State for the Colonies. Though the name "Tampa Bay" was later restored, the English period is still reflected in the names of Tampa's largest river and home county.
Britain was much more concerned with the strategically important Atlantic coast of Florida (especially St. Augustine) than other parts of the territory and did not attempt to found settlements along the Gulf coast. However, the Tampa area did have a few residents: Cuban and Native American fishermen who lived in a small village at the mouth of Spanish Town Creek on Tampa Bay along today's Bayshore Boulevard in Tampa's Hyde Park neighborhood. Some of these pioneers stayed year round, while most caught a large haul of fish (especially mullet) from the teeming waters of the bay, smoked them, and then sold them back in Cuba.
Florida becomes a US territory
Since the mid-1700s, people from various native cultures (especially Creeks from Georgia) had fled to largely-uninhabited Florida to distance themselves from encroaching settlers in their homelands. They were joined by escaped slaves from neighboring colonies / states, and these disparate refugees developed a new Seminole culture.
In 1821, the United States purchased Florida from Spain, mainly to end (alleged) cross-frontier Indians raids and to eliminate the southern refuge for slaves. In fact, one of the first U.S. actions in its new territory was to launch a raid which destroyed Angola, a village built by escaped slaves on the eastern shore of Tampa Bay.
The birth of a pioneer town
In 1823, the United States imposed upon the leaders of the Seminoles to sign the Treaty of Moultrie Creek, which created a large Indian reservation in the interior of peninsular Florida. The U.S. government then built a series of forts and trading posts throughout the territory to enforce the provisions of the treaty
As part of this effort, "Cantonment Brooke" was established on January 10, 1824 by Colonels George Mercer Brooke and James Gadsden at the mouth of the Hillsborough River on Tampa Bay, just about where today's Tampa Convention Center sits in Downtown Tampa. The site was marked by a huge hickory tree set atop an ancient Indian mound most likely built by the Tocobaga culture centuries before. Colonel Brooke, the outpost's first commander, directed his troops to clear the area for the construction of a wooden fort and support buildings, but ordered that several ancient live oak trees inside the encampment be spared to provide shade and cheer. On January 22, 1824, the post was officially named Fort Brooke.
A few settlers established homesteads near the palisade, but growth was very slow due to difficult pioneer conditions and the constant fear of attack from the Seminole population, some of whom lived nearby in an uneasy truce. In December 1835, troops led by Major Francis L. Dade were ambushed by on their way from Fort Brooke to Fort King (near present-day Ocala) in a rout that was dubbed the Dade Massacre. The Second Seminole War had begun.
During the war, Fort Brooke first served as a refuge for settlers, then as a vital military depot and staging area. After almost seven years of vicious fighting, the war was over and the Seminoles were forced away from the Tampa region, and the tiny village began a period of slow growth.
A strong hurricane in late September 1848 almost washed away the budding growth. Every building in Tampa was either damaged or destroyed, including most of Fort Brooke. Much of the population stayed to rebuild, and some desperate lobbying in Washington, DC persuaded the US Army to reconsider a plan to abandon the fort and its garrison of troops.
The Territory of Florida had grown enough by 1845 to become the 27th state. The settlement of Tampa recovered enough by 1849 to incorporate as the "Village of Tampa", which officially occurred on January 18. At the time, Tampa was home to 185 inhabitants, excluding military personnel stationed at Fort Brooke. The city's first official census count in 1850 listed Tampa-Fort Brooke as having 974 residents. Tampa was reincorporated as a town on December 15, 1855, and Judge Joseph B. Lancaster became the first Mayor in 1856.
Evidence of the young community's growth was seen as its first churches appeared. Tampa's first church was established by a Methodist congregation in 1846. That downtown church, First United Methodist Church of is still active today. The Methodists were followed by the Baptists, who organized the First Baptist Church of Tampa in 1859, and the Catholics, who founded a parish in Tampa the following year.
The Civil War in Tampa
On January 10, 1861, the state of Florida seceded from the United States along with the rest of the American South to form the Confederate States of America, touching off the American Civil War. Fort Brooke was soon manned by Confederate troops and martial law was declared in Tampa in January 1862. Tampa's city government ceased to operate for the duration of the war.
Blockade and blockade runners
In late 1861, the Union navy set up a blockade near the mouth of Tampa Bay as part of the overall Anaconda Plan, which sought to squeeze the Confederacy off from outside sources of money and supplies. However, several local blockade runners consistently slipped out undetected to the Gulf of Mexico. Most notable (though not most successful) among these was former Tampa mayor James McKay Sr., who delivered Florida cattle and citrus to Spanish Cuba in exchange for gold and supplies before being captured and imprisoned by Union forces. (McKay Bay, the portion of Tampa Bay adjoining the port, is named in his honor.)
Trying to put a stop to this, Union gunboats sailed up Tampa Bay to bombard Fort Brooke and the surrounding city of Tampa. The Battle of Tampa on June 30-July 1, 1862 was inconclusive, as the shells fell ineffectually and there were no casualties on either side.
Much more damaging to the Confederate cause was the Battle of Fort Brooke on October 17-18, 1863. The Union gunboats U.S.S. Adela and U.S.S. Tahoma came up the bay and, after firing at the fort, landed troops near the town. The Union forces headed a few miles up the Hillsborough River until they found the hidden blockade runners Scottish Chief and Kate Dale near present-day Lowry Park Zoo and burned them at their moorings. The local militia was mustered to intercept the Union troops, but the raiders were able to return to their ships after a short skirmish and headed back out to sea.
The War winds down
In May 1864, the Adela returned, bringing Union forces to occupy Fort Brooke and Tampa itself. Not finding enough justification to stay, they threw most of the fort's armaments into the Hillsborough River, took much of the city's remaining food and supplies, and left after three days.
The war ended in Confederate defeat the following spring, 1865. In May, federal troops arrived in Tampa to occupy the fort and the town as part of Reconstruction. They would remain until August, 1869.
A surviving Ft. Brooke cannon displayed on the University of Tampa campus across from downtown
The years after the Civil War were difficult ones in Tampa. With much of the town in disrepair and the population depleted, the isolated village faced a difficult period. As one returning soldier wrote, "Tampa was a hard-looking place. Streets and lots were grown up with weeds and the outlook certainly was not very encouraging.".
As farms and ranches in the interior recovered, Tampa's small port resumed shipping Florida cattle, oranges, and other produce, primarily to New Orleans, Key West, and Cuba. However, with little industry and land transportation links limited to sandy wagon roads from the east coast of Florida, Tampa's post-war development was glacial and halting.
One factor limiting economic growth was the lack of population growth. Yellow fever had always been a threat in early but the disease hit with terrifying regularity throughout the late 1860s and 1870s. Borne by mosquitoes from the surrounding swampland, Tampa was hit by wave after wave of yellow fever epidemics and scares throughout the period. The disease was little understood at the time, and some residents simply packed up and left rather than face the mysterious and deadly peril.
The after-effects of the Civil War, disease, and disinterest put Tampa into a slow downward spiral. Conditions in the city deteriorated to the point that residents voted to temporarily disincorporate the city in 1869. However, it would reincorporate in 1872. As a result, Tampa's population fell from approximately 885 in 1861 to 796 in 1870 and 720 in 1880.
Another blow was to come. Fort Brooke, the seed from which Tampa had germinated, had served its purpose and was decommissioned in 1883. Except for two cannons fished from the river and displayed on the nearby University of Tampa campus, all traces of the fort are gone. (Though in an odd nod to history, a large downtown parking garage near the old fort site is called the Fort Brooke Parking Garage.)
Despite all the hardships, or perhaps in response to them, new church denominations came to including St. Andrew's Episcopal in 1871, First Presbyterian in 1884, and Zion Lutheran in 1893. Additionally, Tampa's first synagogue, Schaarai Zedek, was founded by the city's Jewish citizenry in 1894.
Late 19th century: rapid growth
Phosphate, a mineral used to make fertilizers and other products, was discovered in the Bone Valley region southeast of Tampa in 1883. Soon, the mining and shipping of phosphate became important area industries. Tampa's port still ships millions of tons of phosphate annually, and the area is known as the "phosphate capital of the world."
Henry B. Plant and his railroad arrive
After decades of efforts by local leaders to connect the area to the United State's extensive railroad system, Tampa's long-standing overland transportation problem was finally remedied in February 1884, when transportation magnate Henry B. Plant's railroad line reached the town. The railroad enabled phosphate and commercial fishing exports to go north, brought many new products into the Tampa market, and started the first real tourist industry: visitors coming in modest numbers to Henry Plant's first Tampa-area hotels.
Henry Plant extended his rail land past Tampa to the other side of the Tampa Peninsula, where he built the new town of Port Tampa City on Old Tampa Bay. There, he constructed the St. Elmo Inn and Port Tampa Inn for a hoped-for influx of visitors. The Port Tampa Inn was larger and had the distinction of being constructed directly on the bay on stilts. Both of these early hotels are long gone, and the independent town of Port Tampa was annexed into Tampa in 1961.
El Pasaje, one of the 1st buildings in Ybor City
Ybor and the cigar industry
See also: History of Ybor City
The new railroad link enabled another important industry to come to Tampa. In 1885, the Tampa Board of Trade helped broker a land deal with Vicente Martinez Ybor to move his cigar manufacturing operations to Tampa from Key West. Close proximity to Cuba made imports of tobacco easy by sea, and Plant's railroad made shipment of finished cigars to the rest of the US market easy by land.
Since Tampa was still a small town at the time (population less than 5,000), Ybor built hundreds of small houses around his factory to accommodate the immediate influx of mainly Cuban and Spanish cigar workers. Other cigar factories soon moved in, and Ybor City (as the 40-odd acre settlement was dubbed) quickly made Tampa a major cigar production center. To round out the town's population, many Italian and a few eastern European Jewish immigrants also arrived starting in the late 1880s, mainly operating businesses and shops that catered to the cigar workers. The majority of Italian immigrants came from Alessandria Della Rocca and Santo Stefano Quisquina, two small Sicilian towns with which Tampa still maintains strong ties.
The ethnic diversity of the area's population required separate establishments in the era of segregation. This included churches, such as St. James Episcopal, founded in 1895 to serve the predominately black cigar workers from The Bahamas and Cuba. Other surviving segregation-era churches include Beulah Baptist Institutional Church, formed by freed slaves in 1865, and St. Paul A.M.E., founded in 1870 as Tampa's first African Methodist Episcopal congregation.
The Tampa Bay Hotel
In 1891, Henry B. Plant built a lavish 500+ room, quarter-mile long luxury resort hotel called the Tampa Bay Hotel among 150 acres (0.6 km2) of manicured gardens along the banks of the Hillsborough River. The eclectic structure cost $2.5 million to build, a huge sum in those days. Plant filled his expensive playground with exotic art collectables from around the world and installed electric lights and the first elevator in Florida.
The resort did great business for a few years, especially during the Spanish-American War (see below). But with Plant's death in 1899, the hotel's fortunes began to fade. The city of Tampa purchased the resort in 1905 and used it for community events, including the first state fair. It was finally closed 1930. In 1933, however, the stately building reopened as the University of Tampa.
The Spanish-American War
Mainly because of Henry Plant's connections in the War Department, Tampa was chosen as an embarkation center for American troops in the Spanish-American War. Lieutenant Colonel Teddy Roosevelt and his Rough Riders were among the 30,000 troops who waited in Tampa for the order to ship out to Cuba during the summer of 1898, filling the town to bursting.
Those months, while unpleasant for the troops wearing thick wool uniforms in the oppressive Florida heat, were a great boon to Tampa's growing economy. It was also the only time when Plant's Tampa Bay Hotel was full to capacity as army officers and newspaper correspondents sought out more comfortable quarters than a hot and dusty tent.
The war was also very popular in Ybor City. Many of the Cuban cigar workers had long pressed for Cuba Libre - a Cuba free of Spanish colonial rule. Leaders like Jose Marti (who had been killed in earlier fighting in Cuba against Spain) had come to Tampa many times to raise money and volunteers for the cause. With the U.S. entering the war to fight against Spain, it seemed that their dreams would soon be realized.
A vital period
The founding of Ybor City, the building of Plant's railroad and hotels, and the discovery of phosphate - all within 10 years - were crucial to Tampa's future development and its very survival. The town suddenly expanded from a dying backwater village to a bustling town to a small city. Except for temporary bumps along the way, this growth has continued unabated.
The 20th century
U.S. Custom House c1905
During the first few decades of the 20th century, the cigar making industry continued to be the backbone of Tampa's economy. The factories in Ybor City and West Tampa made an enormous number of cigars-in the peak year of 1929, over 500,000,000 cigars were hand rolled in the city. As the market for cigars began to wane during the Great Depression, other industries came to the fore, especially shipping and, of course, tourism.
In 1904, a local civic association of local businessmen dubbed themselves Ye Mystic Krewe of Gasparilla (named after local mythical pirate Jose Gaspar), and staged an "invasion" of the city followed by a parade. With a few exceptions, the Gasparilla Pirate Festival has been held every year since.
Bolita, corruption, and the mob
Beginning in the late 19th century, illegal bolita lotteries were very popular among the Tampa working classes, especially in Ybor City. In the early 1920s, this small-time operation was taken over by Charlie Wall. The Wall family was one of the pioneer families from early and Charlie Wall's family tree included many leading businessmen, mayors, and other public officials among its branches.
Wall's operations thrived as he expanded them to include liquor distribution and speakeasies (this was the era of Prohibition) and prostitution. Other smaller organized crime groups tried to muscle in on the action, and long-simmering rivalries were kindled.
These organizations were able to operate openly because of kick-backs and bribes to key local politicians and law enforcement officials. Charlie Wall was well connected, and he used those connections to keep his businesses running and to help put down his competition. Tampa's political elite, which had held an inconsistent but mostly ambivalent attitude toward organized crime, quietly became de-facto partners.
From the early 1930s until the early 1950s, every municipal election was tainted by electoral abnormalities, most with alleged mob connections. The first widespread example was Tampa's mayoral election of 1931, when over 100 people were arrested for "cheating at the polls". Most were supporters of the winning candidate, Robert E. Lee Chancey, who his opponents claimed had close ties to Tampa's "underworld". After the election, all of the charges were either reduced or dropped altogether. Many of those involved had been on the city payroll at the time of their arrest, and most remained there.
The situation was even more chaotic during the next election cycle in 1935. This started before election day when Tampa's chief of police (who supported the incumbent mayor) and the Hillsborough County Sheriff (who supported the challenger) both claimed to be the proper authority to monitor the actual voting. Anticipating trouble, Florida Governor Sholtz mobilized the National Guard to prevent violence. Still, both sheriff's officers and city police were deployed at polling places, resulting in police officers arresting sheriff's deputies and vice-versa.
Despite (or perhaps because of) the large number of observers, ballot stuffing and re-voting was widespread. The day may have turned violent if not for the presence of the National Guard troops and a sideswipe from the Labor Day Hurricane of 1935, which passed just west of Tampa during the afternoon and pelted the area with torrential rains and high winds.
In the end, the Tampa Election Board determined that Chancey had easily won re-election. They had reached these results by throwing out all ballots from 29 precincts due to "fraudulent voting". The Board may not have been the most impartial judge of the matter, however, as Chancey had appointed the members himself.
While Charlie Wall was Tampa's first major crime boss, various factions vied for control of the area in later years. Ongoing power struggles resulted in regular organized-crime related "unsolved" murders of crime-connected figures in what became known as the "Era of Blood". To protect their interests (and keep gangland killings unsolved), crime bosses regularly kept local officials -from state attorneys to top law enforcement personnel and even mayors - on the payroll.
By the late 1940s, most of the area's crime organizations were under the control of Sicilian mafioso Santo Trafficante, Sr. and his faction. After his death in 1954 from cancer, control passed to his son Santo Trafficante, Jr., who established alliances with families in New York and extended his power throughout Florida and into Batista-era Cuba.
The era of rampant and open corruption came to a head in the early 1950s when the Kefauver hearings, Senator Estes Kefauver's traveling investigation of organized crime in America, came to town. Informants (including the retired Charlie Wall) came forward to make startling accusations of corruption throughout Tampa's power structure. The hearings were followed by misconduct trials of several local officials and the "unsolved" murders of some of the government informants (including the retired Charlie Wall).
Though most of the accused persons were acquitted or given light sentences, the trials helped to motivate Tampa to end the corruption and general sense of lawlessness which had prevailed for decades. Ethics and election reforms were passed, and the link between local government and organized crime weakened.
However, major corruption was not eliminated entirely. In 1983, 3 out of the 5 members of the Hillsborough County Commission were charged with accepting bribes. Unlike earlier crooked officials, however, these three were convicted of their crimes and sentenced to federal prison. This scandal resulted in another round of ethics reforms.
Growth and changes
During the Great Depression, WPA projects were underway which include Peter O. Knight Airport, near Davis Island and Drew Field (later named Tampa International Airport). During World War II, MacDill Air Field opened up for military operations.
Tampa remained a compact city with a land area of 19 square miles (49 km2) until the mid-1950s. Its northernmost boundary was the Hillsborough River, in the northern part of Seminole Heights.
In 1953, the city annexed over 60 square miles (160 km2) of unincorporated land, including the communities of Sulphur Springs and Palma Ceia. As a result, Tampa grew rapidly, growing by 150,289 residents during the 1950s. The growth also reflected on the city's national ranking. Tampa jumped from 85th in 1950 to 48th in 1960, its peak ranking to date.
Overall, most of the annexed communities were unincorporated but five incorporated places were consolidated into Tampa: North Tampa (1885), Ybor City (1885), Fort Brooke (1907), West Tampa (1925), and Port Tampa City (1961).
University of South Florida
Urban renewal and suburbanization
With growth came problems. With suburbanization and urban renewal programs on the horizon, Downtown Tampa began deteriorating and many industries began to move to the suburban areas. Park Tower, opened in 1973, would be the city's only substantial skyscraper (460 feet/36 stories) until the building boom of the 1980s. In the midst of this, a race riot plagued the city on June 11, 1967. The combination of the decline of the cigar industry and the construction of Interstates 4 and 275 further deteriorated historic areas such as Ybor City and West Tampa.
There were four attempts to consolidate Tampa with Hillsborough County (1967, 1970, 1971, and 1972). All of which failed at the ballot box with the biggest margin was 33,160 for and 73,568 against the proposed charter in 1972.
These events also reflected on the city's population growth. Tampa grew very slowly in the 1960s to reach 277,714 in 1970. However, further problems in the 1970s lead to the first decline of the city's population in a century, falling to 271,523 in 1980. Tampa's national ranking dropped from 50th in 1970 to 53rd in 1980. In contrast, suburban areas such as Brandon, Carrollwood, and other areas of Hillsborough County experienced rapid growth.
New Tampa annexation
The biggest development of the city was the development of New Tampa that started in 1988 when the city annexed a 24-square mile (mostly rural) area between I-275 and I-75, increasing the total land area from 84 square miles (218 km2) to nearly 109. Despite this, the city only grew three percent in the 1980s to reach 280,015 in 1990.
Early 21st century
On January 5, 2002, just four months after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, 15-year-old amateur pilot Charles Bishop flew a Cessna plane into the 42-story Bank of America Plaza building in downtown Tampa. Bishop died, but there were no other injuries (because the crash occurred on a Saturday, when few people were in the building). A suicide note found in the wreckage expressed support for Osama bin Laden. Bishop had been taking a prescription medicine for acne called Accutane that may have had the side effect of depression or severe psychosis. His family later sued Hoffman-La Roche, the company that makes Accutane, for $70 million; however, an autopsy found no traces of the drug in the teenager's system.
The 2004 Atlantic Hurricane Season was historically busy for all of Florida, including Tampa. Tampa was affected by a record four hurricanes that year; Frances, Jeanne, Charley, and to a lesser extent, Ivan.
The eyes of both Jeanne and Frances passed within a few miles of Tampa as they slashed their way across the state from the east coast. Charley was forecast to make a direct hit on Tampa Bay from the south (the worst-case scenario for local flooding). But the storm made a sudden and unexpected turn to the northeast and brought only tropical storm force winds to devastating the Ft. Myers/Port Charlotte area instead. Ivan roared past the Florida gulf coast on its way to landfall near the Alabama/Florida border, passing near enough to bring high seas and stormy conditions to the Tampa area.
Luxury condos are rising in the former warehouse district of Channelside, downtown Tampa
Current Tampa mayor Pam Iorio has made the redevelopment of Tampa's downtown, especially bringing in residents to the decidedly non-residential area, a priority. Several residential and mixed-development high-rises are in various stages of planning or construction, and a few have already opened. Another of Mayor Iorio's initiatives is the Tampa Riverwalk, a plan which intends to make better use of the land along the Hillsborough River in downtown where Tampa began. Several museums are part of the plan, including the Tampa Bay History Center, the Tampa Children's Museum, and the recently opened Tampa Museum of Art. 
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- ^ "Henry B. Plant Museum - Spanish-American War". Plantmuseum.com. http://www.plantmuseum.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=18&Itemid=41. Retrieved 2010-05-16.
- ^ "Jose Marti | Tampa Bay's Cigar City Magazine". Cigarcitymagazine.com. 2007-03-13. http://www.cigarcitymagazine.com/features/jose-marti.html. Retrieved 2010-05-16.
- ^ Ybor City: The Making of a Landmark Town by Frank Lastra
- ^ a b c d Kerstein, Robert (2001). Politics and Growth in 20th Century Tampa. University Press of Florida. ISBN 0813020832.
- ^ Deitche, Scott. "Creative Loafing Tampa | News | Cover | The Mob". Tampa.creativeloafing.com. http://tampa.creativeloafing.com/gyrobase/the_mob/Content?oid=317. Retrieved 2010-05-16.
- ^ Deitche, Scott. "Creative Loafing Tampa | News | The Mob". Weeklyplanet.com. . Retrieved 2010-05-16.
- ^ "Feature Articles 101". AmericanMafia.com. http://www.americanmafia.com/Feature_Articles_101.html. Retrieved 2010-05-16.
- ^ Deeson, Mike (1983-02-01). "Public Corruption Arrests 25 years later | Tampa Bay, St. Petersburg, Clearwater, Sarasota | WTSP.com 10 Connects". Tampabays10.com. http://www.tampabays10.com/news/local/article.aspx?storyid=73000. Retrieved 2010-05-16.
- ^ 1930 U.S. Census
- ^ 1940 U.S. Census
- ^ a b 1950 U.S. Census
- ^ http://www2.census.gov/prod2/decennial/documents/23761117v1_TOC.pdf
- ^[dead link]
- ^ 1960 U.S. Census
- ^ a b c d e Ben Cahoon. "Mayors of U.S. Cities M-W". Worldstatesmen.org. http://www.worldstatesmen.org/US_Mayors2.html. Retrieved 2010-05-16.
- ^ "Nation: How to Cool It". Time. June 30, 1967. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,837017-1,00.html. Retrieved May 4, 2010.
- ^ [By Elaine C. Iles and Jo-Anne Peck]. "Services - Office of Cultural & Historical Programs". Flheritage.com. http://www.flheritage.com/services/magazine/index.cfm?action=article&season=06spring&article=50. Retrieved 2010-05-16.
- ^ http://etd.lib.fsu.edu/theses/available/etd-04152005-170723/unrestricted/07_lsj_chapter6_c.pdf
- ^ a b c 
- ^ 1990 U.S. Census
- ^ "Floridian: Urban culture clash". Sptimes.com. http://www.sptimes.com/2003/08/10/Floridian/Urban_culture_clash.shtml. Retrieved 2010-05-16.
- ^ "Creative Loafing Tampa | News | Downtowns On The Verge". Tampa.creativeloafing.com. http://tampa.creativeloafing.com/gyrobase/Content?oid=oid%3A52700. Retrieved 2010-05-16.
- Brown, Canter (1999). Tampa before the Civil War. Tampa: University of Tampa Press. ISBN 9781879852648.
- Brown, Canter (2000). Tampa in Civil War & Reconstruction. Tampa: University of Tampa Press. ISBN 9781879852686.
- Kerstein, Robert (2001). Politics and Growth in Twentieth-Century Tampa. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida. ISBN 0813020832.
- Lastra, Frank (2005). Ybor City: the Making of a Landmark Town. Tampa: University of Tampa Press. ISBN 9781597320030.
- Milanich, Jerald (1995). Florida Indians and the Invasion from Europe. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida. ISBN 0813013607.
- Mormino, Gary (1998). The Immigrant World of Ybor City. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida. ISBN 9780813016306.
- Pizzo, Anthony (1968). Tampa Town 1824-1886: Cracker Village with a Latin Accent. Fl: Hurricane House.
- Pizzo, Anthony (1983). Tampa the Treasure City. Tulsa, OK: Continental Heritage Press. ISBN 9780932986382.
- Stewart, George (2008). Names on the Land: a Historical Account of Place-Naming in the United States. New York: NYRB Classics. ISBN 9781590172735.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: History of Tampa|
- Tampa Bay History Center
- Florida, by the Jewish Virtual Library
- Tampa Bay History Collection, includes historical photographs (University of South Florida)